The meaning of saffron to the ancient Persian language: Zar + Par + An = the flower whose feathers are like gold). Saffron is a spice which gets from dried stigma of the flower of saffron, has been historically among the most expensive materials in the world and is used as a spice, color, perfume and medicine. Currently, Iran is the largest saffron producer in the world, and close to eight tenths of the world's saffron is producing in Iran.
Iranians, while exporting saffron to many parts of the ancient world, introduced its properties to the Greeks, Romans, Chinese, and Sami tribes, including the Arabs, and taught the way of cultivation to the Islamic custom around the Mediterranean from the first to fourth centuries of the Ages. So that, the first overseas saffron farms were set up by the Iranians whom exiled by Moawiya in Syria, then the planting of saffron in North Africa and Andalusia (Islamic Spain) and Sicil were popularized, and Iranian ethnicities such as Rostamian and Banotabari influenced on transfer of planting saffron.
Saffron is a small, perennial herb with a height of 10 to 30 centimeters. From the middle of the corms, a number of narrow leaves come out. From the middle of the leaves, a flower peduncle comes out which leads one to three flowers. The flowers have 6 purple petals, which may be red or amethystine in some varieties. The flowers have 3 stigmas and a pedicel leading to a three-pointed stigmas and an anther in red to orange. The part used for this plant is the end of the style and three-branched stigmas are known as saffron which is fragrant and bitter.
saffron has many medicinal and non-pharmacological properties. It contains vitamins B6, B2, B1, vitamin C and other essential nutrients in body.